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J Periodontol. 2008 Jun;79(6):993-8. doi: 10.1902/jop.2008.070525 .

The relationship between alcohol dependence and periodontal disease.

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Department of Dental Clinic, Division of Graduate Periodontics, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Avenida Oswaldo Cruz 95, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil.



The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between alcohol dependence and periodontal disease.


A cross-sectional study of 49 alcoholic and 49 non-alcoholic men was conducted at Philippe Pinel Institute, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Subjects were screened for alcohol dependence using the CAGE (cut-down, annoyed, guilty, eye-opener) questionnaire and the criteria of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision. Sociodemographic data and periodontal clinical parameters, such as visible plaque, bleeding on probing, probing depth (PD), and clinical attachment level (CAL), were collected. Groups were controlled for smoking. Intergroup comparisons of sociodemographic data and mean percentage of clinical parameters were analyzed by the chi(2) and Mann-Whitney tests. The independent effect of alcohol dependence on CAL and PD was assessed by multiple linear regression analysis, adjusting for the effects of plaque, age, income, education, and living conditions.


A significant linear relationship was found between alcohol dependence and mean CAL (P < or =0.013) and mean PD (P < or =0.001).


Alcohol dependence may be associated with an increased severity of CAL and PD.

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