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J Surg Res. 2008 Nov;150(1):34-9. doi: 10.1016/j.jss.2007.12.759. Epub 2008 Jan 10.

Up-regulation of IRAK-M is essential for endotoxin tolerance induced by a low dose of lipopolysaccharide in Kupffer cells.

Author information

1
Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery, Second Affiliated Hospital, Chongqing University of Medical Sciences, Chongqing, China.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Endotoxin tolerance (ET) is an important mechanism to maintain the homeostasis of Kupffer cells (KCs), because KCs are continually exposed to various pathogen-associated molecular patterns including lipopolysaccharide (LPS). ET involves multiple changes in cell signal transduction pathways; however, not all signaling pathways are down-regulated and some proteins are up-regulated. The latter proteins may be counter regulatory, including interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase M (IRAK-M) expression. The aim of this study is to clarify weather or not IRAK-M is involved in the mechanisms of ET in KCs through dampening nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappaB) mediated pathway.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

KCs isolated from male C57BL/6J mice were seeded in 24-well plates at 1 x 10(6) cells/well and cultured overnight prior to transfection, were randomly divided into two groups: the pIRAK-M-short hairpin RNA (shRNA) group (transfected with IRAK-M shRNA) and the control group (transfected with control vector); 24 h after transfection, the two groups were further randomly divided into two subgroups: non-endotoxin pretreatment group (incubation in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium [Invitrogen, Carlsbad, CA] with 10% fetal bovine serum) and endotoxin pretreatment group (incubation in the same medium containing 10 ng/mL LPS), named pIRAK-M-EP, pIRAK-M-NEP, pCV-EP, and pCV-NEP, respectively. Each subgroup contained 6 wells; 24 h later, fresh media containing LPS (100 ng/mL) was added to each subgroup and incubated for an additional 3 h. The expression of IRAK-M gene and protein level were determined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and Western blot, the activities of NF-kappaB were estimated by electrophoretic mobility shift assay and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and the supernatant tumor necrosis factor-alpha levels were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

RESULTS:

The recombinant plasmid of pIRAK-M-shRNA specifically inhibited IRAK-M expression after it was transfected into KCs. At 3 h after 100 ng/mL LPS was added to the medium, IRAK-M expression was significantly induced in pCV-EP than that in pCV-NEP; however, there was no difference between pIRAK-M-NEP and pIRAK-M-EP, accompanied with lowest level of NF-kappaB activation and tumor necrosis factor-alpha levels in pCV-EP, and a dramatic enhancement in the other three groups (P < 0.01).

CONCLUSIONS:

Although a primary low dose of LPS stimulation obviously attenuated KCs response to the second LPS stimulation, the inhibitive influences were partly refracted in pIRAK-M-EP than in pCV-EP, indicating that the absence of IRAK-M caused abnormal enhancement of inflammatory effects. IRAK-M negatively regulates toll-like receptors signaling and involves in the mechanisms of ET in KCs through dampening NF-kappaB mediated pathway; therefore it may be a key component of this important control system, and a new target for the clinical treatment of sepsis.

PMID:
18533191
DOI:
10.1016/j.jss.2007.12.759
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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