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Environ Toxicol. 2008 Oct;23(5):599-606. doi: 10.1002/tox.20406.

Mechanisms of copper toxicity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae determined by microarray analysis.

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Hokkaido Food Processing Research Center, 589-4 Bunkyodai Midorimachi, Ebetsu, Hokkaido 0690836, Japan.


The effect of the heavy metal copper on the expression of a wide spectrum of genes was analyzed by using a DNA microarray. The gene expression profile of baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae grown in a medium containing a sublethal concentration of cupric sulfate was compared with that of yeast grown in a normal medium. Among approximately 6000 yeast ORFs, 143 ORFs were induced more than twofold to resist copper toxicity after exposure to copper. Copper metallothionein CUP1-1 and CUP1-2 were induced more than 20-fold. Some genes related to sulfur metabolism and oxidative stress response were also up-regulated. This DNA microarray analysis identified several molecular targets of copper toxicity.

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