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Bioresour Technol. 2008 Dec;99(18):8685-90. doi: 10.1016/j.biortech.2008.04.015. Epub 2008 Jun 3.

Removal and recovery of phosphorus from water by means of adsorption onto orange waste gel loaded with zirconium.

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Department of Applied Chemistry, Saga University, Saga 840-8502, Japan.


Orange waste, an available biomass, was immobilized with zirconium(IV) to investigate its feasibility for phosphate removal from an aquatic environment. Kinetics, effects of pH and foreign anions, and the adsorption isotherm for phosphate have been examined. The adsorption capacity has been compared to that of two commercially available adsorbents such as zirconium ferrite and MUROMAC XMC 3614. The prepared gel was an effective adsorption gel for phosphate removal with a reasonably high sorption capacity of 57mg-P/g, which was four times higher than that of zirconium ferrite. The highest removal of phosphate was observed at low pH, whereas higher pH suppressed phosphate removal, but even up to pH 9 more than 85% phosphate removal was observed. Adsorbed phosphate was eluted by NaOH solution. Fixed bed column-mode experiments confirmed the complete adsorption of phosphate in continuous-mode operation. Throughout the operating conditions, zirconium was not leaked.

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