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J Orthop Res. 2008 Dec;26(12):1556-61. doi: 10.1002/jor.20671.

Three-dimensional knee joint kinematics during golf swing and stationary cycling after total knee arthroplasty.

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Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582, Japan.


The expectation of returning to sports activities after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) has become more important to patients than ever. To our knowledge, no studies have been published evaluating the three-dimensional knee joint kinematics during sports activity after TKA. Continuous X-ray images of the golf swing and stationary cycling were taken using a large flat panel detector for four and eight post-arthroplasty knees, respectively. The implant flexion and axial rotation angles were determined using a radiographic-based, image-matching technique. Both the golf swing from the set-up position to the top of the backswing, and the stationary cycling from the top position of the crank to the bottom position of the crank, produced progressive axial rotational motions (p = 0.73). However, the golf swing from the top of the backswing to the end of the follow-through produced significantly larger magnitudes of rotational motions in comparison to stationary cycling (p < 0.01). Excessive internal-external rotations generated from the top of the backswing to the end of the follow-through could contribute to accelerated polyethylene wear. However, gradual rotational movements were consistently demonstrated during the stationary cycling. Therefore, stationary cycling is recommended rather than playing golf for patients following a TKA who wish to remain physically active.

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