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Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008 Jun 10;105(23):8108-13. doi: 10.1073/pnas.0800374105. Epub 2008 Jun 3.

Neural substrates underlying human delay and trace eyeblink conditioning.

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  • 1Department of Neurology, Division of Cognitive Neuroscience, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 1620 McElderry Street, Reed Hall East 2, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA.


Classical conditioning paradigms, such as trace conditioning, in which a silent period elapses between the offset of the conditioned stimulus (CS) and the delivery of the unconditioned stimulus (US), and delay conditioning, in which the CS and US coterminate, are widely used to study the neural substrates of associative learning. However, there are significant gaps in our knowledge of the neural systems underlying conditioning in humans. For example, evidence from animal and human patient research suggests that the hippocampus plays a critical role during trace eyeblink conditioning, but there is no evidence to date in humans that the hippocampus is active during trace eyeblink conditioning or is differentially responsive to delay and trace paradigms. The present work provides a direct comparison of the neural correlates of human delay and trace eyeblink conditioning by using functional MRI. Behavioral results showed that humans can learn both delay and trace conditioning in parallel. Comparable delay and trace activation was measured in the cerebellum, whereas greater hippocampal activity was detected during trace compared with delay conditioning. These findings further support the position that the cerebellum is involved in both delay and trace eyeblink conditioning whereas the hippocampus is critical for trace eyeblink conditioning. These results also suggest that the neural circuitry supporting delay and trace eyeblink classical conditioning in humans and laboratory animals may be functionally similar.

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