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Behav Res Methods. 2008 May;40(2):467-78.

An R package for single-case randomization tests.

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Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Centre for Methodology of Educational Research, Leuven, Belgium.


Randomization tests are nonparametric statistical tests that obtain their validity by computationally mimicking the random assignment procedure that was used in the design phase of a study. Because randomization tests do not rely on a random sampling assumption, they can provide a better alternative than parametric statistical tests for analyzing data from single-case designs. In this article, an R package is described for use in designing single-case phase (AB, ABA, and ABAB) and alternation (completely randomized, alternating treatments, and randomized block) experiments, as well as for conducting statistical analyses on data gathered by means of such designs. The R code is presented in a step-by-step way, which at the same time clarifies the rationale behind single-case randomization tests.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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