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Medicine (Baltimore). 2008 May;87(3):160-6. doi: 10.1097/MD.0b013e318178923a.

Treatment and outcomes for patients with bacteremic pneumococcal pneumonia.

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  • 1Drexel School of Public Health, Philadelphia, PA, USA.


Delayed time to antibiotic administration has been linked with higher mortality for patients with community-acquired pneumonia, but the impact of antibiotic resistance on clinical outcomes has been controversial. In the current study we assess the combined impact of antibiotic resistance and antibiotic timing on outcomes, including inhospital mortality, complications, length of stay, and time to stability, for patients hospitalized with community-acquired bacteremic pneumococcal pneumonia. We conducted a retrospective cohort study in 43 hospitals in the Southeastern Pennsylvania region from 2001 to 2004. Eligible adult patients had pneumococcal bacteremia and radiographic evidence of pneumonia. Outcomes were assessed based on medical record review. Multivariable regression was used to adjust for severity of illness and sequentially assess the impact of antibiotic resistance and time to active antibiotic therapy. The overall inhospital mortality was 10%. Overall, levels of macrolide, cephalosporin, and fluoroquinolone resistance were low and did not adversely impact the time to administration of active antibiotic therapy. Receipt of at least 1 active antibiotic within 4 hours was associated with reduced mortality (odds ratio [OR], 0.47; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.2-1.0) and shortened length of stay (OR, 0.77; CI, 0.6-1.0) but did not reduce the risk of other adverse outcomes. We conclude that early antibiotic administration reduces the risks of mortality in patients with bacteremic pneumococcal pneumonia. Current patterns of drug resistance did not lead to delays in administration of active antimicrobial therapy.

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