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Mycorrhiza. 2008 Jul;18(5):241-249. doi: 10.1007/s00572-008-0177-2. Epub 2008 May 31.

Community of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in a coastal vegetation on Okinawa island and effect of the isolated fungi on growth of sorghum under salt-treated conditions.

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Environment Department, The General Environmental Technos Co., Ltd., 1-3-5 Azuchimachi, Chuo-ku, Osaka, 541-0052, Japan.
Forest Development Technological Institute, Nagaikyutaro-68, Momoyama, Fushimi, Kyoto, 612-0855, Japan.
Fungus/Mushroom Resource and Research Center, Faculty of Agriculture, Tottori University, 4-101 Koyama-Minami, Tottori, 680-8553, Japan.


Community of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi in a coastal vegetation on Okinawa island in Japan was examined. A sampling plot was established in a colony of Ipomoea pes-caprae (Convolvulaceae) on the beach in Tamagusuku, Okinawa Pref, in which eight root samples of I. pes-caprae and three root samples each of Vigna marina (Leguminosae) and Paspalum distichum (Poaceae) were collected. Partial 18S rDNA of AM fungi was amplified from the root samples by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with primers NS31 and AM1. Restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis with HinfI and RsaI for cloned PCR products revealed that two types of Glomus sp., type A and type B, were dominant in the colony. Among them, the fungi of type A were especially dominant near the edge of the colony facing the sea. A phylogenetic analysis showed that the AM fungi of type B are closely related to Glomus intraradices and those of type A are nearly related to type B. From the sequence data, it was also found that type A was further divided into two types, type A1 and A2. One representative strain each of the three types, type A1, A2, and B, propagated from single spore each, was examined for the growth of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) at three different salinity levels, 0, 100, and 200 mM NaCl. At the non-salt-treated condition, the type B fungus was the most effective on shoot growth enhancement of the host plant, whereas at the salt-treated conditions, the type A2 fungus was the most effective. An efficient suppression of Na + translocation into the shoot by the examined AM fungi was found. These results suggested that the AM fungi dominant near the sea are adapted to salt-stressed environment to alleviate the salt stress of host plants.

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