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Nat Immunol. 2008 Jul;9(7):769-76. doi: 10.1038/ni.1622. Epub 2008 May 30.

Regulation of humoral and cellular gut immunity by lamina propria dendritic cells expressing Toll-like receptor 5.

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Laboratory of Host Defense, Immunology Frontier Research Center, Osaka University, 3-1 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871, Japan.


The intestinal cell types responsible for defense against pathogenic organisms remain incompletely characterized. Here we identify a subset of CD11c(hi)CD11b(hi) lamina propria dendritic cells (LPDCs) that expressed Toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5) in the small intestine. When stimulated by the TLR5 ligand flagellin, TLR5(+) LPDCs induced the differentiation of naive B cells into immunoglobulin A-producing plasma cells by a mechanism independent of gut-associated lymphoid tissue. In addition, by a mechanism dependent on TLR5 stimulation, these LPDCs promoted the differentiation of antigen-specific interleukin 17-producing T helper cells and type 1 T helper cells. Unlike spleen DCs, the LPDCs specifically produced retinoic acid, which, in a dose-dependent way, supported the generation and retention of immunoglobulin A-producing cells in the lamina propria and positively regulated the differentiation interleukin 17-producing T helper cells. Our findings demonstrate unique properties of LPDCs and the importance of TLR5 for adaptive immunity in the intestine.

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