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Eur Heart J. 2008 Oct;29(20):2497-505. doi: 10.1093/eurheartj/ehn221. Epub 2008 May 30.

The magnitude of reverse remodelling irrespective of aetiology predicts outcome of heart failure patients treated with cardiac resynchronization therapy.

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Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Section of Cardiac Electrophysiology and Pacing, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH, USA.



We assessed the relationship between cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT)-induced reverse remodelling and mortality during a long-term follow-up in a prospective observational study.


We analyzed data from a prospective registry including 398 consecutive patients who underwent CRT between September 1998 and September 2007. Left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) was assessed before CRT and in the period between 3 and 6 months following implant. All-cause mortality, urgent transplantation and implantation of left ventricular assist device were all considered relevant events. A total of 398 (179 non-ischaemic and 219 ischaemic) patients were analysed. Overall, the increase of LVEF was statistically significant and was computed with 7.0 points (95% CI 5.8-8.3, P < 0.001). Non-ischaemic patients had a larger increase [9.2 points (95% CI 7.0-11.1), P < 0.001] of their LVEF from baseline, when compared with the ischaemic group. The median duration of follow-up was 4.4 years. The cumulative incidence of all events at the end of the 96 months period of follow-up was 55% and it was 34% (95% CI 29-40) at 5 years. At the multivariable analysis of the event-free survival, aetiology lost its predictive value (HR 0.92, P = 0.47), while a change in LVEF >or=6 points still significantly decreased the risk of event during the follow-up (HR 0.30, P = 0.001).


Reverse remodelling measured by LVEF after 3 months is a good predictor of long-term outcome. Patients with an increase in LVEF >or=6 points have an excellent event-free survival approaching 66% at 5 years of follow-up.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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