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Am Heart J. 2008 Jun;155(6):992-7. doi: 10.1016/j.ahj.2008.01.007. Epub 2008 Feb 21.

Comparison of matrix metalloproteinase 9 and brain natriuretic peptide as clinical biomarkers in chronic heart failure.

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  • 1Penn Cardiovascular Institute, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, USA.



Matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) may serve as a biomarker of ventricular remodeling in selected populations, but few studies have assessed its performance in clinical practice. We tested MMP-9 as a biomarker of remodeling and predictor of outcomes in a systolic heart failure cohort derived from clinical practice and compared its performance to brain natriuretic peptide (BNP).


Plasma MMP-9 and BNP levels were measured in 395 outpatients with systolic heart failure who participated in the Penn Heart Failure Study. We tested for (1) cross-sectional associations between biomarker levels, left ventricular end-diastolic dimension index (LVEDDI), and ejection fraction (EF), and (2) associations between baseline biomarker levels and risk of subsequent cardiac hospitalization or death over 3 years of follow-up.


Matrix metalloproteinase 9 had no significant correlation with LVEDDI (rho = 0.04, P = not significant) or EF (rho = -0.06, P = not significant), whereas BNP showed highly significant correlations (LVEDDI: rho = -0.27, P < .0001; EF: rho = -0.35, P < .0001). In multivariate linear regression models, MMP-9 again showed no significant associations with LVEDDI (P = .6) or EF (P = .14), whereas BNP showed strong independent associations (LVEDDI: P < .001; EF: P = .002). Kaplan-Meier analyses showed no difference in hospital-free survival by baseline MMP-9 tertile (P = .7), whereas higher BNP tertile predicted worse survival (P < .0001). In multivariate Cox models, baseline MMP-9 level did not predict risk of adverse outcome (hazard ratio for log increase 0.98, P = .9), whereas BNP was a significant independent predictor (hazard ratio for log increase 1.15, P = .02).


Compared to BNP, MMP-9 is a poor clinical biomarker of remodeling and outcome in patients with systolic heart failure derived from clinical practice.

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