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Glycobiology. 2008 Sep;18(9):698-706. doi: 10.1093/glycob/cwn048. Epub 2008 May 28.

Functional properties of the carboxy-terminal host cell-binding domains of the two toxins, TcdA and TcdB, expressed by Clostridium difficile.

Author information

1
Department of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB T2N 1N4, Canada.

Abstract

The biological and ligand-binding properties of recombinant C-terminal cell-binding domains (CBDs) and subdomains of the two large exotoxins, Toxin A (TcdA) and Toxin B (TcdB) expressed by Clostridium difficile were examined in the hemagglutination and Verocytotoxicity neutralization assays and by qualitative affinity chromatography using Sepharose-linked alpha Gal(1,3)betaGal(1,4)beta Glc as well as the direct electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ES-MS) assay. These studies revealed that, whereas the full-length TcdA CBD agglutinated rabbit erythrocytes, neutralized TcdA-mediated Vero cell death and bound to alpha Gal(1,3)betaGal(1,4)beta Glc-derivatized Sepharose, the TcdB CBD was inactive in these functional assays. Moreover, retention by alpha Gal(1,3)betaGal(1,4)beta Glc-derivatized Sepharose corresponded to the number of available TcdA subdomain ligand-binding sites. By contrast, the ES-MS assays revealed that both the TcdA and TcdB CBD bind to 8-methoxycarbonyloctyl-alpha Gal(1,3)betaGal(1,4)beta Glc sequences with similar avidities. Additional ES-MS experiments using chemically altered alpha Gal(1,3)betaGal(1,4)beta Glc sequences also revealed that the TcdA and TcdB CBD will tolerate a fair amount of structural variation in their complementary glycan ligands. Although the studies are consistent with the known ligand-binding properties of the TcdA and TcdB holotoxins, they also revealed subtle heretofore unrecognized functional differences in their receptor recognition properties.

PMID:
18509107
DOI:
10.1093/glycob/cwn048
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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