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Breast. 2008 Oct;17(5):484-91. doi: 10.1016/j.breast.2008.02.010. Epub 2008 May 27.

Vascular endothelial growth factor is a strong predictor of early distant recurrences in a prospective study of premenopausal women with lymph-node negative breast cancer.

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Karolinska Biomic Center (KBC) Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.

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  • Breast. 2009 Apr;18(2):142. Gruvbreger-Saal, Sofia [corrected to Gruvberger-Saal, Sofia].


We investigate the prognostic significance of the pro-angiogenic cytokine vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA), plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1), and S-phase fraction (SPF) for distant disease free survival (DDFS) in 219 premenopausal patients with node-negative breast cancer (NNBC). In univariate analysis significantly shorter DDFS was observed for patients with high VEGF (p=0.006), high uPA (p=0.001), and high SPF (p<0.001). The prognostic significance of VEGF varied over time being very strong for early relapses (0-2.25 years follow-up) (HR=7.9; p=0.006) while no difference was seen in the subsequent follow-up period (HR=1.3; p=0.62). In a series of bivariate analyses VEGF provided prognostic information during the whole observation period (0-72 months) in addition to age, tumour size, oestrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PgR), and uPA. Also this effect was more pronounced during the first follow-up period suggesting VEGF as a marker of early recurrences.

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