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J Neurochem. 2008 Aug;106(4):1563-76. doi: 10.1111/j.1471-4159.2008.05501.x. Epub 2008 Jun 28.

Endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ dysregulation and endoplasmic reticulum stress following in vitro neuronal ischemia: role of Na+-K+-Cl- cotransporter.

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Neuroscience Training Program, and Department of Neurological Surgery, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, Wisconsin, USA.


We investigated the role of Na(+)-K(+)-Cl(-) cotransporter (NKCC1) in conjunction with Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger (NCX) in disruption of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Ca(2+) homeostasis and ER stress development in primary cortical neurons following in vitro ischemia. Oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) and reoxygenation (REOX) caused a rise in [Na(+)](cyt) which was accompanied by an elevation in [Ca(2+)](cyt). Inhibition of NKCC1 with its potent inhibitor bumetanide abolished the OGD/REOX-induced rise in [Na(+)](cyt) and [Ca(2+)](cyt). Moreover, OGD significantly increased Ca(2+)(ER) accumulation. Following REOX, a biphasic change in Ca(2+)(ER) occurred with an initial release of Ca(2+)(ER) which was sensitive to inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (IP(3)R) inhibition and a subsequent refilling of Ca(2+)(ER) stores. Inhibition of NKCC1 activity with its inhibitor or genetic ablation prevented the release of Ca(2+)(ER). A similar result was obtained with inhibition of reversed mode operation of NCX (NCX(rev)). OGD/REOX also triggered a transient increase of glucose regulated protein 78 (GRP78), phospho-form of the alpha subunit of eukaryotic initiation factor 2 (p-eIF2alpha), and cleaved caspase 12 proteins. Pre-treatment of neurons with NKCC1 inhibitor bumetanide inhibited upregulation of GRP78 and attenuated the level of cleaved caspase 12 and p-eIF2alpha. Inhibition of NKCC1 reduced cytochrome C release and neuronal death. Taken together, these results suggest that NKCC1 and NCX(rev) may be involved in ischemic cell damage in part via disrupting ER Ca(2+) homeostasis and ER function.

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