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Theor Appl Genet. 2008 Aug;117(4):479-87. doi: 10.1007/s00122-008-0792-5. Epub 2008 May 27.

QTL analysis of cleistogamy in soybean.

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University of Tsukuba, 2-1-18 Kannondai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, 305-8518, Japan.


Early-maturing cultivars of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] native to the shores of the Sea of Okhotsk (Sakhalin and Kuril Islands) and eastern Hokkaido (northern Japan) have a strong tendency to produce cleistogamous flowers throughout their blooming period. A previous study revealed that cleistogamy is controlled by a minimum of two genes with epistatic interaction, one of which is associated with a maturity gene responsible for insensitivity to incandescent long daylength (ILD). This study was conducted to determine the genetic basis of cleistogamy in more detail by QTL mapping. F2 to F4 progenies derived from a cross between a cleistogamous cv. Karafuto-1 and a chasmogamous cv. Toyosuzu were used. A molecular linkage map spanning 2,180 cM comprising 500 markers was constructed using 89 F2 plants. The markers were distributed in 25 linkage groups. An interval mapping method to analyze categorical traits identified four QTLs for cleistogamy, cl1, cl2, cl3 and cl4, in molecular linkage groups (MLGs) C2, D1a, I and L, respectively. Alleles derived from Karafuto-1 had additive effects to increase probability of cleistogamy at cl3 and cl4, whereas the alleles had additive effects to decrease the probablity at cl1 and cl2. Progeny test confirmed the effects of cl3, which had the highest LOD score (5.20). Composite interval mapping revealed four QTLs for flowering date, fd5-fd8. Judging from relative location with markers and association with ILD responses, fd7 and fd8 may correspond to maturity genes E4 and E3, respectively. cl3 and cl4 were located at similar positions as fd7 and fd8, suggesting that the two maturity genes may control cleistogamy by either pleiotropy or close linkage.

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