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Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2008 Aug;52(8):2760-6. doi: 10.1128/AAC.01674-07. Epub 2008 May 27.

Antibiotic resistance in Haemophilus influenzae decreased, except for beta-lactamase-negative amoxicillin-resistant isolates, in parallel with community antibiotic consumption in Spain from 1997 to 2007.

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Antibiotic Laboratory, Bacteriology Service, Centro Nacional de Microbiología, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Majadahonda, Madrid, Spain.


The susceptibility to 14 antimicrobial agents and the mechanisms of aminopenicillin resistance were studied in 197 clinical isolates of Haemophilus influenzae--109 isolated in 2007 (study group) and 88 isolated in 1997 (control group). Community antibiotic consumption trends were also examined. H. influenzae strains were consecutively isolated from the same geographic area, mostly from respiratory specimens from children and adults. Overall, amoxicillin resistance decreased by 8.4% (from 38.6 to 30.2%). Beta-lactamase production decreased by 15.6% (from 33 to 17.4%, P = 0.01), but amoxicillin resistance without beta-lactamase production increased by 7.1% (from 5.7 to 12.8%). All beta-lactamase-positive isolates were TEM-1, but five different promoter regions were identified, with Pdel being the most prevalent in both years, and Prpt being associated with the highest amoxicillin resistance. A new promoter consisting of a double repeat of 54 bp was detected. Community consumption of most antibiotics decreased, as did the geometric means of their MICs, but amoxicillin-clavulanic acid and azithromycin consumption increased by ca. 60%. For amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, a 14.2% increase in the population with an MIC of 2 to 4 microg/ml (P = 0.02) was observed; for azithromycin, a 21.2% increase in the population with an MIC of 2 to 8 microg/ml (P = 0.0005) was observed. In both periods, the most common gBLNAR (i.e., H. influenzae isolates with mutations in the ftsI gene as previously defined) patterns were IIc and IIb. Community consumption of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole decreased by 54%, while resistance decreased from 50 to 34.9% (P = 0.04). Antibiotic resistance in H. influenzae decreased in Spain from 1997 to 2007, but surveillance should be maintained since new forms of resistances may be developing.

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