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Proc Soc Exp Biol Med. 1991 May;197(1):19-26.

Physiologic importance of pyrroloquinoline quinone.

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Department of Nutrition, University of California, Davis 95616-8669.


Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ, methoxatin) is a dissociable cofactor for a number of bacterial dehydrogenases. The compound is unusual because of its ability to catalyze redox cycling reactions at a high rate of efficiency and it has the potential of catalyzing various carbonyl amine reactions as well. In methylotrophic bacteria, PQQ is derived from the condensation of L-tyrosine with L-glutamic acid. Whether or not PQQ serves as a cofactor in higher plants and animals remains controversial. Nevertheless, a strong case may be made that PQQ and related quinoids have nutritional and pharmacologic importance. In highly purified, chemically defined diets, PQQ stimulates animal growth. Furthermore, PQQ deprivation appears to impair connective tissue maturation, particularly when initiated in utero and throughout perinatal development.

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