Send to

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
Mol Psychiatry. 2010 Feb;15(2):185-203. doi: 10.1038/mp.2008.53. Epub 2008 May 27.

Integrative proteomic analysis of the nucleus accumbens in rhesus monkeys following cocaine self-administration.

Author information

  • 1Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC 27157, USA.


The reinforcing effects and long-term consequences of cocaine self-administration have been associated with brain regions of the mesolimbic dopamine pathway, namely the nucleus accumbens (NAc). Studies of cocaine-induced biochemical adaptations in rodent models have advanced our knowledge; however, unbiased detailed assessments of intracellular alterations in the primate brain are scarce, yet essential, to develop a comprehensive understanding of cocaine addiction. To this end, two-dimensional difference in gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) was used to compare changes in cytosolic protein abundance in the NAc between rhesus monkeys self-administering cocaine and controls. Following image normalization, spots with significantly differential image intensities (P<0.05) were identified, excised, trypsin digested and analyzed by matrix-assisted laser-desorption ionization time-of-flight time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF-TOF). In total, 1098 spots were subjected to statistical analysis with 22 spots found to be differentially abundant of which 18 proteins were positively identified by mass spectrometry. In addition, approximately 1000 protein spots were constitutively expressed of which 21 proteins were positively identified by mass spectrometry. Increased levels of proteins in the cocaine-exposed monkeys include glial fibrillary acidic protein, syntaxin-binding protein 3, protein kinase C isoform, adenylate kinase isoenzyme 5 and mitochondrial-related proteins, whereas decreased levels of proteins included beta-soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein and neural and non-neural enolase. Using a complimentary proteomics approach, the differential expression of phosphorylated proteins in the cytosolic fraction of these subjects was examined. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DGE) was followed by gel staining with Pro-Q Diamond phosphoprotein gel stain, enabling differentiation of approximately 150 phosphoprotein spots between the groups. Following excision and trypsin digestions, MALDI-TOF-TOF was used to confirm the identity of 15 cocaine-altered phosphoproteins. Significant increased levels were detected for gamma-aminobutyric acid type A receptor-associated protein 1, 14-3-3 gamma-protein, glutathione S-transferase and brain-type aldolase, whereas significant decreases were observed for beta-actin, Rab GDP-dissociation inhibitor, guanine deaminase, peroxiredoxin 2 isoform b and several mitochondrial proteins. Results from these studies indicate coordinated dysregulation of proteins related to cell structure, signaling, metabolism and mitochondrial function. These data extend and compliment previous studies of cocaine-induced biochemical alterations in human postmortem brain tissue, using an animal model that closely recapitulates the human condition and provide new insight into the molecular basis of the disease and potential targets for pharmacotherapeutic intervention.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for Nature Publishing Group Icon for PubMed Central
    Loading ...
    Support Center