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J Urol. 2008 Jul;180(1):343-51. doi: 10.1016/j.juro.2008.02.044. Epub 2008 May 21.

CpG hypermethylation of the UCHL1 gene promoter is associated with pathogenesis and poor prognosis in renal cell carcinoma.

Author information

1
Department of Urology, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima, Japan.

Abstract

PURPOSE:

Aberrant DNA hypermethylation has been reported in renal cell carcinoma. We performed microarray analysis in the renal cancer cell line ACHN treated with the demethylating agent 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine and investigated the UCHL1 gene involved in the regulation of cellular ubiquitin levels.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

We subjected 131 renal cell carcinoma and 61 corresponding normal kidney tissue samples to real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, quantitative methylation specific polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry. We also established a stable UCHL1 transfectant to evaluate cell growth.

RESULTS:

We identified 10 genes that were up-regulated more than 2.5-fold in 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine treated vs untreated ACHN cells. UCHL1 expression was increased 3.41-fold by 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine treatment. In clinical samples the UCHL1 methylation index was significantly higher in renal cell carcinoma than in normal kidney tissue (p = 0.011). Conversely UCHL1 mRNA expression was significantly lower in renal cell carcinoma than in normal kidney tissue (p <0.0001). There was a negative correlation between mRNA expression and the UCHL1 methylation index (p = 0.017). The immunostaining score for UCHL1 was significantly higher in normal kidney tissue than in renal cell carcinoma (p <0.0001). Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that a positive UCHL1 methylation index had a significant adverse effect on prognosis (p = 0.048). Significant growth inhibition in UCHL1 transfectant compared to that in WT ACHN (p <0.0001) suggests that UCHL1 functions as a potential tumor suppressor gene in human renal cell carcinoma.

CONCLUSIONS:

To our knowledge we report the first study demonstrating that the mechanism of UCHL1 down-regulation in renal cell carcinoma is through CpG hypermethylation of the promoter region and methylation of the UCHL1 gene is associated with a poor prognosis in patients with renal cell carcinoma.

PMID:
18499164
DOI:
10.1016/j.juro.2008.02.044
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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