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J Biomed Mater Res A. 2009 Jul;90(1):225-37. doi: 10.1002/jbm.a.32088.

TiO2 nanotubes on Ti: Influence of nanoscale morphology on bone cell-materials interaction.

Author information

1
W. M. Keck Biomedical Materials Research Laboratory, School of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164, USA.

Abstract

Ti being bioinert shows poor bone cell adhesion with an intervening fibrous capsule. Ti could be made bioactive by several methods including growing in situ TiO2 layer on Ti-surface. TiO2 nanotubes were grown on Ti surface via anodization process and the bone cell-material interactions were evaluated. Human osteoblast cell attachment and growth behavior were studied using an osteoprecursor cell line for 3, 7, and 11 days. An abundant amount of extracellular matrix (ECM) between the neighboring cells was noticed on anodized nanotube surface with filopodia extensions coming out from cells to grasp the nanoporous surface of the nanotube for anchorage. To better understand and compare cell-materials interactions, anodized nanoporous sample surfaces were etched with different patterns. Preferential cell attachment was noticed on nanotube surface compare to almost no cells in etched Ti surface. Cell adhesion with vinculin adhesive protein showed higher intensity, positive contacts on nanoporous surface and thin focal contacts on the Ti-control. Immunochemistry study with alkaline phosphatase showed enhanced osteoblastic phenotype expressions in nanoporous surface. Osteoblast proliferation was significantly higher on anodized nanotube surface. Surface properties changed with the emergence of nanoscale morphology. Higher nanometer scale roughness, low contact angle and high surface energy in nanoporous surface enhanced the osteoblast-material interactions. Mineralization study was done under simulated body fluid (SBF) with ion concentration nearly equal to human blood plasma to understand biomimetic apatite deposition behavior. Although apatite layer formation was noticed on nanotube surface, but it was nonuniform even after 21 days in SBF.

PMID:
18496867
DOI:
10.1002/jbm.a.32088
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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