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Obstet Gynecol Surv. 1991 Mar;46(3):131-7.

Fertility control and the risk of gynecological malignancies.

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Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur.



This paper considers the debate over the risks of developing cancer from using various contraceptive methods. Claiming that the debate provokes unfair publicity and misinterpretation, various risks of cancer due to the oral pill, long-acting contraceptives, and IUDs are discussed. The oral pill is examined in the context of its potential relationship in causing breast cancer, endometrial cancer, ovarian cancer, cervical cancer, vaginal and fallopian tube neoplasms, and trophoblastic disease. Long-acting contraceptives are discussed in the context of genital tract neoplasia, while IUDs are examined in regard to gynecologic malignancies. The paper finds that no conclusive evidence exists indicating that IUDs cause gynecological cancers. Low-dose oral contraceptive pills are currently being used, and no clear evidence exists that they cause or increase the chance of developing cancer in the genital tract and the breast. Oral contraceptives do, however, have beneficial effects in preventing endometrial and ovarian cancer. The low-dose combined oral contraceptive should be considered safe where cancer, cardiovascular, and thrombotic risks are concerned.

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