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BJU Int. 2008 Aug;102(3):270-5. doi: 10.1111/j.1464-410X.2008.07743.x. Epub 2008 May 20.

Invasive T1 bladder cancer: indications and rationale for radical cystectomy.

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Department of Urology, University of Southern California Keck School of Medicine, Norris Comprehensive Cancer Center, Los Angeles, CA 90089, USA.


Invasive T1 bladder cancers are potentially lethal tumours with varying degrees of aggressiveness and progression. The management of invasive tumours can be very difficult and includes bladder-sparing with transurethral resection and intravesical therapy, or a more aggressive approach with radical cystectomy. Certain clinical and pathological factors might provide some risk stratification for invasive T1 tumours, and might better direct the physician towards an earlier cystectomy for some patients. This review provides a rationale for a radical cystectomy in patients with high-risk, invasive T1 bladder cancer.

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