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Biomed Microdevices. 2008 Oct;10(5):623-9. doi: 10.1007/s10544-008-9173-8.

Magnetron sputtered diamond-like carbon microelectrodes for on-chip measurement of quantal catecholamine release from cells.

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1
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Missouri-Columbia, 243 Engineering Bldg. West, Columbia, MO, 65211, USA.

Abstract

Carbon electrodes are widely used in electrochemistry due to their low cost, wide potential window, and low and stable background noise. Carbon-fiber electrodes (CFE) are commonly used to electrochemically measure "quantal" catecholamine release via exocytosis from individual cells, but it is difficult to integrate CFEs into lab-on-a-chip devices. Here we report the development of nitrogen doped diamond-like carbon (DLC:N) microelectrodes on a chip to monitor quantal release of catecholamines from cells. Advantages of DLC:N microelectrodes are that they are batch producible at low cost, and are harder and more durable than graphite films. The DLC:N microelectrodes were prepared by a magnetron sputtering process with nitrogen doping. The 30 microm by 40 microm DLC:N microelectrodes were patterned onto microscope glass slides by photolithography and lift-off technology. The properties of the DLC:N microelectrodes were characterized by AFM, Raman spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry. Quantal catecholamine release was recorded amperometrically from bovine adrenal chromaffin cells on the DLC:N microelectrodes. Amperometric spikes due to quantal release of catecholamines were similar in amplitude and area as those recorded using CFEs and the background current and noise levels of microchip DLC:N electrodes were also comparable to CFEs. Therefore, DLC:N microelectrodes are suitable for microchip-based high-throughput measurement of quantal exocytosis with applications in basic research, drug discovery and cell-based biosensors.

PMID:
18493856
PMCID:
PMC2574730
DOI:
10.1007/s10544-008-9173-8
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
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