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Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2008 Jun;12(6):695-7.

Smoking, HIV and non-fatal tuberculosis in an urban African population.

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Center for Global Health Research, St Michael's Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.


Most previous studies on smoking and tuberculosis (TB) have not considered the role of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, and very few have been conducted in sub-Saharan Africa. We conducted a case-control study on smoking and TB in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Men aged 18-65 years with TB (n = 72) were compared to men with no history of TB (n = 81). Forty-three per cent of cases smoked vs. 25% of controls (OR 2.3, adjusted for age, education and self-reported HIV status). Given that HIV appears to increase TB transmission in Africa, our finding that smoking also increases the risk of TB in Africa is of special concern.

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