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Medicine (Baltimore). 1991 Mar;70(2):137-60.

Epstein-Barr virus lymphoproliferative disease associated with acquired immunodeficiency.

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1
Department of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts.

Abstract

Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) lymphoproliferative disease is seen in patients with both congenital and acquired immunodeficiencies. Lymphoproliferative disease has been reported in 1 to 3% of renal transplant recipients. Most patients presented with solid tumor masses, rather than an infectious mononucleosis-like syndrome. About one third of cases had involvement of the renal allograft with tumor; the small intestine or central nervous system was also frequently affected. About half of the patients survived. The most frequent therapy used for survivors was decreasing the dose of immunosuppressive therapy and surgical resection of lymphoproliferative lesions. Compared with fatal cases, survivors more often had evidence of active EBV infection (primary or reactivated), received cyclosporine as the major immunosuppressive agent, had polyclonal lesions, and had B-cell hyperplasia rather than lymphoma. Lymphoproliferative disease has been described in 5 to 13% of heart transplant recipients. In our review, the cardiac allograft was not involved by disease in any patient; however, the lungs were involved in more than half of the cases. The soft tissues were frequent sites of lymphoproliferative disease. All patients had lymphoma or immunoblastic sarcoma on pathology and all had monoclonal lesions. While only 8% of patients survived, about half died from causes unrelated to lymphoproliferative disease. EBV lymphoproliferative disease has been reported in 9% of heart-lung transplant recipients. Most of the patients presented with pulmonary symptoms and the pulmonary allograft was involved in 80% of cases. The large and small intestine were frequently affected. About 60% of patients survived; survivors were treated with acyclovir and decreases in the dose of immunosuppressive drugs. Lymphoproliferative disease has been described in 2% of liver transplant recipients. In our review, the hepatic allograft was involved in one third of cases; the tonsils, kidneys, and small intestine were frequently affected. Half of the patients survived; survivors were most often treated with reduction in immunosuppressive therapy and surgical resection of lesions. Compared with fatal cases, survivors had fewer organs involved and fewer monoclonal lesions. Lymphoproliferative disease has been reported in 1 to 2% of bone marrow transplant recipients. Use of T-cell depleted bone marrow and infusion of anti-T-cell antibodies to prevent graft-versus-host disease increased the risk of EBV lymphoproliferative disease. In our review, the bone marrow was involved by lymphoproliferative disease in one third of cases; the liver, spleen, kidney, and lungs were frequently affected. About 16% of patients survived; 2 survivors were treated with infusions of monoclonal anti-B-cell antibodies and 1 received interferon alpha.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS).

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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