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FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol. 2008 Jul;53(2):145-50. doi: 10.1111/j.1574-695X.2008.00400.x. Epub 2008 May 8.

Extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis: current challenges and threats.

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  • 1Department of Microbiology, C.S.M. Medical University, Lucknow, India.


Extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB) is defined as tuberculosis caused by a Mycobacterium tuberculosis strain that is resistant to at least rifampicin and isoniazid among the first-line antitubercular drugs (multidrug-resistant tuberculosis; MDR-TB) in addition to resistance to any fluroquinolones and at least one of three injectable second-line drugs, namely amikacin, kanamycin and/or capreomycin. Recent studies have described XDR-TB strains from all continents. Worldwide prevalence of XDR-TB is estimated to be c. 6.6% in all the studied countries among multidrug-resistant M. tuberculosis strains. The emergence of XDR-TB strains is a reflection of poor tuberculosis management, and controlling its emergence constitutes an urgent global health reality and a challenge to tuberculosis control activities in all parts of the world, especially in developing countries and those lacking resources and as well as in countries with increasing prevalence of HIV/AIDS.

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