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Q J Exp Psychol (Hove). 2008 Jun;61(6):920-32. doi: 10.1080/17470210701625626.

Putting in the mind versus putting on the green: expertise, performance time, and the linking of imagery and action.

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Department of Psychology, The University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637, USA.


Does manipulating the time available to image executing a sensorimotor skill impact subsequent skill execution outcomes in a similar manner as manipulating execution time itself? Novice and skilled golfers performed a series of imaged golf putts followed by a series of actual golf putts under instructions that emphasized either speeded or nonspeeded imaging/putting execution. Novices putted less accurately (i.e., higher putting error score) following either putting or imagery instructions in which speed was stressed. Skilled golfers showed the opposite pattern. Although more time available to execute a skill enhances novice performance, this extra time harms the proceduralized skill of experts. Manipulating either actual execution time or imagined execution time produces this differential impact on novice and skilled performance outcomes. These results are discussed in terms of the functional equivalence between imagery and action and expertise differences in the attentional control structures governing complex sensorimotor skill execution.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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