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Am J Infect Control. 2008 May;36(4 Suppl):S93-100. doi: 10.1016/j.ajic.2007.05.011.

Epidemiology, etiology, and diagnosis of hospital-acquired pneumonia and ventilator-associated pneumonia in Asian countries.

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Department of Respiratory & Critical Care Medicine, Indraprastha Apollo Hospital, Delhi, India.


Hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) and ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) are significant public health issues in Asian countries, as they are worldwide. Mortality attributable to HAP and especially VAP can be very high. The present review aims to determine whether the incidence and prevalence of HAP and VAP are higher in Asian countries than in Western countries, whether the organisms causing these nosocomial infections differ etiologically, and whether they are more difficult to treat (ie, demonstrate greater resistance). The implementation of available guidelines can be best achieved through an understanding of local epidemiology, etiology, and resistance patterns, which can facilitate optimal treatment choices. The current review presents data on epidemiology, etiology, and diagnosis of HAP and VAP drawn from an expert panel of clinicians representing 10 Asian countries.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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