Send to

Choose Destination
Endocrinology. 2008 Aug;149(8):3817-31. doi: 10.1210/en.2007-0989. Epub 2008 May 8.

Thyroid hormone promotes cell invasion through activation of furin expression in human hepatoma cell lines.

Author information

Department of Biochemistry, Chang-Gung University, 259 Wen-hwa 1 Road, Taoyuan 333, Taiwan, Republic of China.


The objective of this study was to identify genes regulated by thyroid hormone (T(3)) and associated with tumor invasion. The gene encoding furin, as previously identified by cDNA microarray, is known to be up-regulated by T(3) treatment, and stimulated furin production occurs in thyroidectomized rats after administration of T(3). Presently, by using serial deletion of the promoter and EMSAs, the T(3) response element on the furin promoter was localized to the -6317/-6302 region. T(3)-mediated furin up-regulation was cooperative with TGF-beta because T(3) induction increased after Smad3/4 addition. Furthermore, the invasiveness of HepG2-thyroid hormone receptor (TR) cells was significantly increased by T(3) treatment, perhaps due to furin processing of matrix metalloproteinase-2 and -9. In addition, furin up-regulation either by stable overexpression or T(3) and/or TGF-beta induction was evident in severe-combined immune-deficient mice inoculated with HepG2-TRalpha1 cells. The HepG2-furin mice displayed a higher metastasis index and tumor size than HepG2-neo mice. Notably, the increased liver and lung tumor number or size in the hyperthyroid severe-combined immune-deficient mice as well as TGF-beta mice was attributed specifically to furin overexpression in the HepG2-TRalpha1 cells. Furthermore, this study demonstrated that furin overexpression in some types of hepatocellular carcinomas is TR dependent and might play a crucial role in the development of hepatocellular carcinoma. Thus, T(3) regulates furin gene expression via a novel mechanism or in cooperation with TGF-beta to enhance tumor metastasis in vitro and in vivo.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Silverchair Information Systems Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center