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Curr Opin Lipidol. 2008 Jun;19(3):242-7. doi: 10.1097/MOL.0b013e3282ffaf6a.

N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid regulation of hepatic gene transcription.

Author information

  • 1Department of Nutrition and Exercise Sciences, Linus Pauling Institute, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon 97331-5109, USA. Donald.Jump@oregonstate.edu

Abstract

PURPOSE OF REVIEW:

The liver plays a central role in whole body lipid metabolism and adapts rapidly to changes in dietary fat composition. This adaption involves changes in the expression of genes involved in glycolysis, de-novo lipogenesis, fatty acid elongation, desaturation and oxidation. This review brings together metabolic and molecular studies that help explain n-3 (omega-3) polyunsaturated fatty acid regulation of hepatic gene transcription.

RECENT FINDINGS:

Dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid regulates hepatic gene expression by targeting three major transcriptional regulatory networks: peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha, sterol regulatory element binding protein-1 and the carbohydrate regulatory element binding protein/Max-like factor X heterodimer. 22:6,n-3, the most prominent n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid in tissues, is a weak activator of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha. Hepatic metabolism of 22:6,n-3, however, generates 20:5,n-3, a strong peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha activator. In contrast to peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha, 22:6,n-3 is the most potent fatty acid regulator of hepatic sterol regulatory element binding protein-1. 22:6,n-3 suppresses sterol regulatory element binding protein-1 gene expression while enhancing degradation of nuclear sterol regulatory element binding protein-1 through 26S proteasome and Erk1/2-dependent mechanisms. Both n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid suppress carbohydrate regulatory element binding protein and Max-like factor X nuclear abundance and interfere with glucose-regulated hepatic metabolism.

SUMMARY:

These studies have revealed unique mechanisms by which specific polyunsaturated fatty acids control peroxisome proliferator activated receptor alpha, sterol regulatory element binding protein-1 and carbohydrate regulatory element binding protein/Max-like factor X function. As such, specific metabolic and signal transduction pathways contribute significantly to the fatty acid regulation of these transcription factors and their corresponding regulatory networks.

PMID:
18460914
PMCID:
PMC2764370
DOI:
10.1097/MOL.0b013e3282ffaf6a
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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