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Biomed Mater. 2007 Mar;2(1):S7-S15. doi: 10.1088/1748-6041/2/1/S02. Epub 2007 Mar 2.

Electrode-tissues interface: modeling and experimental validation.

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Polystim Neurotechnologies Laboratory-Ecole Polytechnique de Montréal, Department of Electrical Engineering, Montréal (QC), Canada.


The electrode-tissues interface (ETI) is one of the key issues in implantable devices such as stimulators and sensors. Once the stimulator is implanted, safety and reliability become more and more critical. In this case, modeling and monitoring of the ETI are required. We propose an empirical model for the ETI and a dedicated integrated circuit to measure its corresponding complex impedance. These measurements in the frequency range of 1 Hz to 100 kHz were achieved in acute dog experiments. The model demonstrates a closer fitting with experimental measurements. In addition, a custom monitoring device based on a stimuli current generator has been completed to evaluate the phase shift and voltage across the electrodes and to transmit wirelessly the values to an external controller. This integrated circuit has been fabricated in a CMOS 0.18 microm process, which consumes 4 mW only during measurements and occupies an area of 1 mm(2).

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