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Transplant Proc. 2008 Apr;40(3):822-4. doi: 10.1016/j.transproceed.2008.02.049.

Bacterial and fungal pneumonias after lung transplantation.

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Lung Transplant Group, Heart Institute (InCor) do Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil.



The aim of this study was to evaluate the epidemiology of bacterial and fungal pneumonia in lung transplant (LT) recipients and to assess donor-to-host transmission of these microorganisms.


We retrospectively studied all positive cultures from bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) of 49 lung transplant recipients and their donors from August 2003 to April 2007.


There were 108 episodes of pneumonia during a medium follow-up of 412 days (range, 1-1328 days). The most frequent microorganisms were: Pseudomonas aeruginosa (n = 36; 33.3%), Staphylococcus aureus (n = 29; 26.8%), and Aspergillus spp. (n = 18; 16%). Other fungal infections were due to Fusarium spp., Cryptococcus neoformans, and Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. Of the 31 donors with positive BAL, 15 had S. aureus. There were 21 pretransplant colonized recipients (43%) and 16 of them had suppurative underlying lung disease. P. aeruginosa was the most frequent colonizing organism (59% of pretransplant positive cultures). There were 11 episodes of bacteremia and lungs were the source in 5 cases. Sixteen deaths occurred and 6 (37.5%) were due to infection. Statistical analyses showed association between pretransplant colonizing microorganisms from suppurative lung disease patients and pneumonias after lung transplantation (RR = 4.76; P = .04; 95% CI = 1.02-22.10). No other analyzed factor was significant.


Bacterial and fungal infections are frequent and contribute to higher mortality in lung transplant recipients. P. aeruginosa is the most frequent agent of respiratory infections. This study did not observe any impact of donor lung organisms on pneumonia after lung transplantation. Nevertheless, we demonstrated an association between pretransplant colonizing microorganisms and early pneumonias in suppurative lung transplant recipients.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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