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Cancer Sci. 2008 Jul;99(7):1362-9. doi: 10.1111/j.1349-7006.2008.00833.x. Epub 2008 Apr 29.

CXCR6 is expressed in human prostate cancer in vivo and is involved in the in vitro invasion of PC3 and LNCap cells.

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Department of Oncology, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071, China.

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  • Cancer Sci. 2008 Dec;99(12):2548.


In spite of the clinical importance of prostate cancer (PCa) bone metastasis, the precise mechanisms for the directed migration of malignant cells remain unclear. In the present study, the expression of CXCR6 in human PCa and benign prostatic hyperplasia samples, and the expression of CXCL16 in human osseous tissues were determined by immunohistochemistry. It was found that the level of CXCR6 protein expression was elevated in human malignant prostate tumors, and CXCL16 was expressed positively by human osteocytes in vivo. The in vitro experiments further confirmed that the PCa cell lines PC3 and LNCap expressed CXCR6 at both the mRNA and protein levels, and exogenous CXCL16 has the potential to stimulate the invasion of PC3 and LNCap. To further elucidate the role of the CXCL16-CXCR6 axis in PCa progression, we compared the expression of CXCR6 and CXCR4 in human PCa tissues and the effects of CXCL16 and CXCL12 on the in vitro invasion of PC3 and LNCap cells. It was shown that CXCR6 and CXCR4 proteins were coexpressed and elevated in human PCa samples, and CXCL16 and CXCL12 promoted the invasion of PC3 and LNCap via their respective receptors. Furthermore, in contrast to CXCL12, which enhanced the activity of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) 9 and MMP2 in PC3 and LNCap, CXCL16 ligation resulted in stronger MMP9 and MMP2 activity in LNCap but not in PC3. Our results suggest that besides CXCL12/CXCR4, CXCL16/CXCR6 might be another important factor involved in PCa bone metastasis.

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