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Biochemistry. 2008 May 27;47(21):5804-13. doi: 10.1021/bi800018a. Epub 2008 May 2.

Domain C of human poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 is important for enzyme activity and contains a novel zinc-ribbon motif.

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Division of Medicinal Chemistry, College of Pharmacy, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Institute for Cellular and Molecular Biology, University of Texas, Austin, Texas 78712, USA.


Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) is a multimodular nuclear protein that participates in many fundamental cellular activities. Stimulated by binding to nicked DNA, PARP-1 catalyzes poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation of the acceptor proteins using NAD (+) as a substrate. In this work, NMR methods were used to determine the solution structure of human PARP-1 protein. Domain C was found to contain a zinc-binding motif of three antiparallel beta-strands with four conserved cysteines positioned to coordinate the metal ligand, in addition to a helical region. The zinc-binding motif is structurally reminiscent of the "zinc-ribbon" fold, but with a novel spacing between the conserved cysteines (CX2CX12CX 9C). Domain C alone does not appear to bind to DNA. Interestingly, domain C is essential for PARP-1 activity, since a mixture containing nicked DNA and the PARP-1 ABDEF domains has only basal enzymatic activity, while the addition of domain C to the mixture initiated NAD (+) hydrolysis and the formation of poly(ADP-ribose), as detected by an NMR-based assay and autoradiography. The structural model for domain C in solution provides an important framework for further studies aimed at improving our understanding of how the various domains within the complex PARP-1 enzyme play their respective roles in regulating the enzyme activity when cells are under conditions of genotoxic stress.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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