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Pediatrics. 2008 May;121(5):e1208-14. doi: 10.1542/peds.2007-2049.

Increased morning brain natriuretic peptide levels in children with nocturnal enuresis and sleep-disordered breathing: a community-based study.

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Division of Pediatric Sleep Medicine and Kosair Children's Hospital Research Institute, Department of Pediatrics, University of Louisville, Louisville, Kentucky 40202, USA.



Habitual snoring and obstructive sleep apnea have been associated with bed-wetting in children, and effective obstructive sleep apnea treatment may improve enuresis.


The purpose of this work was to assess whether habitual snoring is associated with increased incidence of enuresis and whether severity of obstructive sleep apnea correlates with enuretic frequency and to evaluate brain natriuretic peptide levels.


Parental surveys of 5- to 7-year-old children were reviewed for habitual snoring and enuresis. Enuresis was also assessed in a cohort of 378 children with habitual snoring undergoing overnight polysomnographic evaluation, and brain natriuretic peptide plasma levels were determined in 20 children with obstructive sleep apnea, 20 with habitual snoring without obstructive sleep apnea, and 20 nonsnoring children, matched for enuresis.


There were 17,646 surveys completed (50.6% boys; 18.3% black). A total of 1976 (11.2%) of these children were habitual snoring (53% boys; 25.2% black). A total of 531 habitual snoring children also had enuresis (26.9%), with a predominant representation of boys (472 boys [87.5%]). Among the 15670 nonsnoring children, enuresis was reported in 1821 children (11.6%), of whom 88.8% were boys. However, enuresis among 378 children with habitual snoring did not correlate with the magnitude of sleep respiratory disturbances. Indeed, enuresis was reported in 33 of 149 children with obstructive sleep apnea (obstructive apnea hypopnea index: >2 per hour of total sleep time; 53% boys) as compared with 36 habitual snoring children with enuresis (62% boys) and obstructive apnea hypopnea index <2 per hour of total sleep time. Brain natriuretic peptide levels were elevated among children with enuresis and were marginally increased among children with obstructive sleep apnea.


Habitual snoring is associated with increased prevalence of enuresis, and brain natriuretic peptide levels are increased in enuretic children with further increases with obstructive sleep apnea. However, the prevalence of enuresis is not modified by severity of sleep disturbance. Even mild increases in sleep pressure because of habitual snoring may raise the arousal threshold and promote enuresis, particularly among prone children, that is, those with elevated brain natriuretic peptide levels.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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