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Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis. 2009 Jul;32(4):325-40. doi: 10.1016/j.cimid.2008.01.005. Epub 2008 Apr 29.

Epidemiology of H5N1 avian influenza.

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Center for Animal Disease Modeling and Surveillance, Department of Medicine & Epidemiology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616, United States.


High pathogenic (HP) H5N1 avian influenza (AI) infection has been reported in domestic poultry, wildlife, and human populations since 1996. Risk of infection is associated with direct contact with infected birds. The mode of H5N1 spread from Asia to Europe, Africa and the Far East is unclear; risk factors such as legal and illegal domestic poultry and exotic bird trade, and migratory bird movements have been documented. Measures used to control disease such as culling, stamping out, cleaning and disinfection, and vaccination have not been successful in eradicating H5N1 in Asia, but have been effective in Europe.

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