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J Biol Chem. 2008 Jun 20;283(25):17131-8. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M802797200. Epub 2008 Apr 27.

Mercapturic acid conjugates of 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal and 4-oxo-2-nonenal metabolites are in vivo markers of oxidative stress.

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Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences and the Linus Pauling Institute, Oregon State University, Corvallis Oregon 97331, USA.


Oxidative stress-induced lipid peroxidation leads to the formation of cytotoxic and genotoxic 2-alkenals, such as 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE) and 4-oxo-2-nonenal (ONE). Lipid-derived reactive aldehydes are subject to phase-2 metabolism and are predominantly found as mercapturic acid (MA) conjugates in urine. This study shows evidence for the in vivo formation of ONE and its phase-1 metabolites, 4-oxo-2-nonen-1-ol (ONO) and 4-oxo-2-nonenoic acid (ONA). We have detected the MA conjugates of HNE, 1,4-dihydroxy-2-nonene (DHN), 4-hydroxy-2-nonenoic acid (HNA), the lactone of HNA, ONE, ONO, and ONA in rat urine by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry comparison with synthetic standards prepared in our laboratory. CCl(4) treatment of rats, a widely accepted animal model of acute oxidative stress, resulted in a significant increase in the urinary levels of DHN-MA, HNA-MA lactone, ONE-MA, and ONA-MA. Our data suggest that conjugates of HNE and ONE metabolites have value as markers of in vivo oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation.

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