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J Clin Densitom. 2008 Jan-Mar;11(1):29-42. doi: 10.1016/j.jocd.2007.12.004.

Dual-energy X-ray aborptiometry assessment in children and adolescents with diseases that may affect the skeleton: the 2007 ISCD Pediatric Official Positions.

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Sheffield University, Sheffield Childrens NHS Foundation Trust, Western Bank, Sheffield, UK. <>


The Task Force focusing on the use of dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in children and adolescents with diseases that may affect the skeleton reviewed over 300 articles to establish the basis for the Official Positions. A significant number of studies used DXA-based outcome measures to assess the effects of specific interventions and charted the natural history of incremental changes in bone size and mass in specific disease states in children. However, the utility of DXA in clinical practice has not been evaluated systematically, in large part due to the lack of a workable definition for childhood osteoporosis. Thus, in combination with the Official Positions addressing the diagnosis of osteoporosis in children, and the reporting of DXA results in children, this document presents clear guidelines from which clinicians and researchers alike can work. This report delineates a set of disorders in which it is appropriate to use DXA as part of the comprehensive assessment of skeletal health in children and adolescents, and provides guidance concerning the initiation of assessment and the frequency of monitoring. Importantly, this document also highlights significant gaps in our knowledge, emphasizing areas for future research.

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