Send to

Choose Destination
Diabetes Metab Res Rev. 2008 May-Jun;24 Suppl 1:S19-24. doi: 10.1002/dmrr.861.

Advanced glycation end products and diabetic foot disease.

Author information

Department of Internal Medicine, University Hospital Maastricht, Maastricht, The Netherlands.


Diabetic foot disease is an important complication of diabetes. The development and outcome of foot ulcers are related to the interplay between numerous diabetes-related factors such as nerve dysfunction, impaired wound healing and microvascular and/or macrovascular disease.The formation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) has been recognized as an important pathophysiological mechanism in the development of diabetic complications. Several mechanisms have been proposed by which AGEs lead to diabetic complications such as the accumulation of AGEs in the extracellular matrix causing aberrant cross-linking, the binding of circulating AGEs to the receptor of AGEs (RAGE) on different cell types and activation of key cell signalling pathways with subsequent modulation of gene expression, and intracellular AGE formation leading to quenching of nitric oxide and impaired function of growth factors. In the last decade, many experimental studies have shown that these effects of AGE formation may play a role in the pathogenesis of micro- and macrovascular complications of diabetes, diabetic neuropathy and impaired wound healing. In recent years also, several clinical studies have shown that glycation is an important pathway in the pathophysiology of those complications that predispose to the development of foot ulcers. Currently, there are a number of ways to prevent or decrease glycation and glycation-induced tissue damage. Although not in the area of neuropathy or wound healing, recent clinical studies have shown that the AGE-breakers may be able to decrease adverse vascular effects of glycation with few side effects.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Wiley
Loading ...
Support Center