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Eval Rev. 2008 Aug;32(4):335-62. doi: 10.1177/0193841X08315175. Epub 2008 Apr 25.

Active parental consent in school-based research: how much is enough and how do we get it?

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Department of Criminology and Criminal Justice, University of Missouri, St. Louis, MO, USA.


Active parental consent policies have been blamed for low participation rates and selection bias (i.e., loss of "high-risk" youths) in school-based studies. In this article, the authors describe active consent procedures that produced an overall active consent rate of 79% in a sample of more than 4,500 middle school students attending 29 schools in seven cities across the United States. Consent rates, however, varied considerably both within and between schools. To better understand factors associated with active parental consent rates, the authors examined district-level, school-level, and teacher-specific effects on consent rates.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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