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Clin Immunol. 2008 Jul;128(1):85-93. doi: 10.1016/j.clim.2008.03.460. Epub 2008 Apr 25.

Chemokine-receptor upregulation and disease severity in respiratory syncytial virus infection.

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Department of Infectious Diseases and Immunity, Hammersmith Campus, Imperial College London, UK.


Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) infection is an important cause of severe infant bronchiolitis, partly due to lower airway inflammation orchestrated by virus-induced chemokine secretion. Chemokine receptors may therefore be therapeutic targets. We investigated RSV-induced chemokine receptor (CCR) 1, 2 and 5 surface expressions in a cellular model and in infants. RSV infection increased human monocytic CCR1, 2 and 5 expression, as assessed by FACS, via replication-dependent mechanisms. CCR1 and CCR5 levels peaked at 36 h and CCR2 levels at 48 h. Monocytes from infants with RSV-bronchiolitis significantly increased CCR1 expression after ex vivo RSV infection compared to controls. Expression of CCR5 also increased, and correlated with CCR1 expression (r=0.78, p<0.0001). CCR1 upregulation correlated with disease severity markers. Monocyte CCR1 receptors were functionally active as stimulation resulted in calcium influx. CCR1/5 blocking strategies may be useful in decreasing cellular inflammation in RSV infection.

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