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Urol Oncol. 2009 Jul-Aug;27(4):352-7. doi: 10.1016/j.urolonc.2007.12.010. Epub 2008 Apr 24.

Dilemmas in the treatment of urothelial cancers of the prostate.

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Department of Urology, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37232, USA.



The objective of this paper is to examine the contemporary incidence, diagnosis, and treatment of prostatic urothelial carcinoma and make recommendations on the current dilemmas of treating urothelial cancer of the prostate.


A review of English-language literature from 1990 to the present was performed utilizing the U.S. National Library of Medicine's Pub Med database. Keywords used were urothelial cell carcinoma, prostatic urethral involvement, prostatic duct/acini involvement, carcinoma in situ. Bibliographies of reviewed articles were also searched.


Transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder with involvement of the prostate has been reported in multiple studies with an incidence between 12% and 48%. Stromal invasion of the prostate has a reported incidence between 7% and 17%. The incidence of primary transitional cell carcinoma of the prostate has been estimated at 1% to 4% of prostatic malignancies. Degree and depth of prostatic invasion has prognostic significance with 5-year survival rates being 100% for those with urethral mucosal involvement, 50% with ductal/acinar involvement, and 40% with prostatic stromal invasion. The actual anatomic path that urothelial carcinoma invasion occurs also has prognostic significance. Those with contiguous malignant involvement had a 7% 5-year survival rate compared with those with noncontiguous involvement and a 46% 5-year survival rate.


Prostatic urothelial carcinoma is often under appreciated and not well understood. Malignant involvement of different anatomic locations of the prostate (i.e., mucosa, ducts, acini, and stroma) influence not only diagnosis but treatment of disease. Although debate exists regarding optimal therapy for mucosal involvement, if the prostatic stroma is involved, radical cystoprostatectomy is the treatment of choice.

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