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J Mol Med (Berl). 2008 Jun;86(6):663-71. doi: 10.1007/s00109-008-0340-4. Epub 2008 Apr 25.

New angiotensins.

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The Hypertension and Vascular Research Center, Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC 27157, USA.


Accumulation of a large body of evidence during the past two decades testifies to the complexity of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS). The incorporation of novel enzymatic pathways, resulting peptides, and their corresponding receptors into the biochemical cascade of the RAS provides a better understanding of its role in the regulation of cardiovascular and renal function. Hence, in recent years, it became apparent that the balance between the two opposing effector peptides, angiotensin II and angiotensin-(1-7), may have a pivotal role in determining different cardiovascular pathophysiologies. Furthermore, our recent studies provide evidence for the functional relevance of a newly discovered rat peptide, containing two additional amino acid residues compared to angiotensin I, first defined as proangiotensin-12 [angiotensin-(1-12)]. This review focuses on angiotensin-(1-7) and its important contribution to cardiovascular function and growth, while introducing angiotensin-(1-12) as a potential novel angiotensin precursor.

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