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J Leukoc Biol. 2008 Jul;84(1):215-23. doi: 10.1189/jlb.0907652. Epub 2008 Apr 24.

Thrombin-induced expression of endothelial CX3CL1 potentiates monocyte CCL2 production and transendothelial migration.

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1
Institute of Pharmacology of Natural Products and Clinical Pharmacology, Ulm University, Helmholtzstr. 20, D-89081 Ulm, Germany.

Abstract

CX3CL1 (fractalkine, neurotactin) is the sole CX3C chemokine. It induces monocyte locomotion in its cleaved form, but in its membrane-anchored form, it also acts as an adhesion molecule. The expression of CX3CL1 is up-regulated in endothelial cells by proinflammatory cytokines such as IL-1 or TNF-alpha. Here, we studied the effect of the serine protease thrombin on endothelial CX3CL1 induction and its putative relevance for monocyte function. In HUVEC, thrombin triggered a time- and concentration-dependent expression of CX3CL1 at the mRNA and the protein level as shown by RT-PCR, Western immunoblotting, and flow cytometric analysis. Thrombin induced CX3CL1 by activating protease-activated receptor 1 (PAR1) as demonstrated by the use of PAR1-activating peptide and the PAR1-specific antagonist SCH 79797. The thrombin-induced CX3CL1 expression was NF-kappaB-dependent, as shown by EMSA, ELISA, and by inhibition of the NF-kappaB signaling pathway by the IkappaB kinase inhibitor acety-11-keto-beta-boswellic acid or by transient overexpression of a transdominant-negative form of IkappaBalpha. Upon cocultivation of human monocytes with HUVEC, the thrombin-dependent induction of membrane-anchored CX3CL1 in HUVEC triggered monocyte adhesion and an enhanced release of the MCP-1/CCL2 by monocytes and potentiated the monocyte transendothelial migration. Accordingly, the recombinant extracellular domain of CX3CL1 induced CCL2 release by monocytes. Thus, the thrombin-induced monocyte/endothelial cell cross-talk mediated by increased CX3CL1 expression potentiates the CCL2 chemokine generation that might contribute to the recruitment of monocytes into inflamed areas.

PMID:
18436581
DOI:
10.1189/jlb.0907652
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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