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J Biomed Mater Res A. 2009 Apr;89(1):96-107. doi: 10.1002/jbm.a.31967.

Effect of dynamic 3-D culture on proliferation, distribution, and osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells.

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Orthopedic Research Laboratory, Clinical Institute, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark.


Ex vivo engineering of autologous bone tissue as an alternative to bone grafting is a major clinical need. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of 3-D dynamic spinner flask culture on the proliferation, distribution, and differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Immortalized human MSCs were cultured on porous 75:25 PLGA scaffolds for up to 3 weeks. Dynamically cultured cell/scaffold constructs demonstrated a 20% increase in DNA content (21 days), enhanced ALP specific activity (7 days and 21 days), a more than tenfold higher Ca2+ content (21 days), and significantly increased transcript levels of early osteogenesis markers (e.g., COL1A1, BMP2, RUNX-2) as compared with static culture. Despite the formation of a dense superficial cell layer, markedly increased cell ingrowth was observed by fluorescence microscopy on day 21. Furthermore, increased extracellular matrix deposition was visualized by scanning electron microscopy after 1 and 3 weeks of dynamic culture. The observed increased ingrowth and osteogenic differentiation of 3-D dynamically cultured human MSCs can be explained by generation of fluid shear stress and enhanced mass transport to the interior of the scaffold mimicking the native microenvironment of bone cells. This study provides evidence for the effectiveness of dynamic culture of human MSCs during the initial phase of ex vivo osteogenesis.

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