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J Clin Periodontol. 2008 Jul;35(7):576-83. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-051X.2008.01236.x. Epub 2008 Apr 21.

Clinical changes in periodontium during pregnancy and post-partum.

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Anaerobe Reference Laboratory, National Public Health Institute (KTL), Helsinki, Finland.



Pregnancy has been presented to increase susceptibility to gingival inflammation. It is unclear whether pregnancy gingivitis exposes or proceeds to periodontitis. We examined longitudinally the severity of periodontal changes during pregnancy and post-partum, and compared the findings with an age-matched group of non-pregnant women.


Thirty generally healthy, non-smoking women at an early phase of their pregnancy and 24 non-pregnant women as controls were recruited. The pregnant group was examined three times during pregnancy and twice during post-partum, and the non-pregnant group three times, once per subsequent month. At each visit, visible plaque index (VPI), bleeding on probing (BOP), probing pocket depth (PPD), and clinical attachment level (CAL) were measured from six sites per tooth.


In the pregnant group, BOP and PPD increased simultaneously without relation to plaque between the first and second trimesters, and thereafter decreased during subsequent visits. No changes were detected in CAL during the study period. In the non-pregnant group, BOP stayed invariable during the follow-up and correlated with the amount of plaque. Neither periodontal pocket formation nor significant changes in attachment levels were observed.


Based on this study, changes in clinical parameters during pregnancy are reversible, indicating that pregnancy gingivitis does not predispose or proceed to periodontitis.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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