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Cancer. 2008 Jun 15;112(12):2809-19. doi: 10.1002/cncr.23494.

Preoperative assessment enables the early diagnosis and successful treatment of lymphedema.

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Breast Cancer Department, National Naval Medical Center, Bethesda, Maryland 20889-5600, USA.



The incidence of breast cancer (BC)-related lymphedema (LE) ranges from 7% to 47%. Successful management of LE relies on early diagnosis using sensitive measurement techniques. In the current study, the authors demonstrated the effectiveness of a surveillance program that included preoperative limb volume measurement and interval postoperative follow-up to detect and treat subclinical LE.


LE was identified in 43 of 196 women who participated in a prospective BC morbidity trial. Limb volume was measured preoperatively and at 3-month intervals after surgery. If an increase>3% in upper limb (UL) volume developed compared with the preoperative volume, then a diagnosis of LE was made, and a compression garment intervention was prescribed for 4 weeks. Upon reduction of LE, garment wear was continued only during strenuous activity, with symptoms of heaviness, or with visible swelling. Women returned to the 3-month interval surveillance pathway. Statistical analysis was a repeated-measures analysis of variance by time and limb (P<or=.001) comparing the LE cohort with an age-matched control group.


The time to onset of LE averaged 6.9 months postoperatively. The mean (+/-standard deviation) affected limb volume increase was 83 mL (+/-119 mL; 6.5%+/-9.9%) at LE onset (P=.005) compared with baseline. After the intervention, a statistically significant mean 48 mL (+/-103 mL; 4.1%+/-8.8%) volume decrease was realized (P<.0001). The mean duration of the intervention was 4.4 weeks (+/-2.9 weeks). Volume reduction was maintained at an average follow-up of 4.8 months (+/-4.1 months) after the intervention.


A short trial of compression garments effectively treated subclinical LE.

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