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Surg Laparosc Endosc Percutan Tech. 2008 Apr;18(2):157-61. doi: 10.1097/SLE.0b013e318165c899.

Does gender affect laparoscopic cholecystectomy?

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Second Department of Surgery, Democritus University of Thrace, Alexandroupolis, Greece.


The relationship between sex and outcome after laparoscopic surgery for symptomatic cholelithiasis remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of sex on the clinical presentation of patients with symptomatic gallstone disease and the clinical outcomes of laparoscopic cholecystectomy. The rates of conversion to open cholecystectomy, complication rates, operative times, and lengths of hospital stay were compared between the sexes. Compared with female patients, males were significantly older and more likely to have coexisting cardiovascular disease, previous upper abdominal surgery, previous hospitalization for acute cholecystitis and pancreatitis, acute cholecystitis, and suppurative cholecystitis (such as empyema), conversions, and complications. The mortality rate was nil. Analyses revealed an independent effect of sex on the prevalence of complications, even when including all of the major confounding factors in the model. In contrast, the effect of sex on conversion to open cholecystectomy was not significant when controlling for patient age. Operative time and postoperative hospital stay were significantly longer in males than in females. The tendency of male patients to have cholecystitis of greater severity should remind surgeons of the need to inform patients about the higher conversion rate among male patients, to reduce the disappointment of a large laparotomy wound or prolonged recovery period. On the other hand, there may be an increased need for surgeons to strongly advice male patients with symptomatic cholelithiasis to undergo early intervention.

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