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Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2008 Jun;294(6):H2701-11. doi: 10.1152/ajpheart.00160.2007. Epub 2008 Apr 18.

A novel mouse model of X-linked cardiac hypertrophy.

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Laboratory of Developmental Biology, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892-8001, USA.


We recovered a novel mouse mutant exhibiting neonatal lethality associated with severe fetal cardiac hypertrophy and with some adult mice dying suddenly with left ventricular hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Using Doppler echocardiography, we screened surviving adult mice in this mutant line for cardiac hypertrophy. Cardiac dimensions were obtained either from two-dimensional images collected using a novel ECG-gated ultra-high-frequency ultrasound system or by traditional M-mode imaging on a clinical ultrasound system. These analyses identified, among the littermates, two populations of mice: those with apparent cardiac hypertrophy with hypercontractile function characterized by ejection fraction of 75-80%, and normal littermates with ejection fraction of 53-55%. Analysis of the ECG-gated two-dimensional cines indicated that the hypertrophy was of the nonobstructive type. Further analysis of heart-to-body weight ratio confirmed the ultrasound diagnosis of left ventricular hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Histopathology showed increased ventricular wall thickness, enlarged myocyte size, and mild myofiber disarray. Ultrastructural analysis by electron microscopy revealed mitochondria hyperproliferation and dilated sarcoplasmic reticulum. Genome scanning using microsatellite DNA markers mapped the mutation to the X chromosome. DNA sequencing showed no mutations in the coding regions of several candidate genes on the X chromosome, including several known to be associated with left ventricular hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. These findings suggest that this mouse line may harbor a mutation in a novel gene causing X-linked cardiomyopathy.

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